Overview of the most common basic SHELL commands. I typically use PuTTY, a free telnet and SSH Client for Windows and Unix platforms. It is lightweight and easy to use and doesn’t need installing (can run from a flash disk).
…change directory, method used for moving from one folder to another.
…would take you to foldername2.
…moves up one directory.
…moves you to root.
…prints to console your present working directory – where you currently are.
…list contents of current directory.
…shows long format inc. group owner, size, date modified, permissions.
…shows ALL files inc. hidden files.
…lists contents of sub directories recursively.
…the above options can be used at the same time.
…list items in folder without actually moving to it.
Creating files and directories/folders
…use the touch command to create files.
…use the rm command to remove a file.
…use the mkdir command to create a new directory/folder.
…use the rmdir command to remove a directory/folder, folder must be empty.
mv folder1/file.html folder2/file.html
…use the mv command to move a file. Can also be used to rename a file.
Compressing and backing up files and folders
zip -r foo.zip foo/
…compress the folder ‘foo’ and all of its contents into a zip file called ‘foo.zip’.
zip foo.zip foo.html
…compress the file’foo.html’ into a zip file called ‘foo.zip’.
File and directory/folder permissions and ownership
chmod 755 file.html
…changes the file.html file permissions, same for a folder.
chmod -r 755 myfolder
…changes permissions for that folder and all folders and files inside it recursively.
Here are the chmod octal numeric values
* 700: only owner can read
* 755: everyone can read but not write
* 775: only group can read and write
* 770: no-one but group can read
* 666: everyone can read and write
* 1777: everyone can read,write,execute
chown user:myself file.html
…changes the ownership of file.html to the user called ‘myself’.